Introduction:







Longum iter est per praecepta, breve et efficax per exempla Teaching by precept is a long road, but short and beneficial is the way by example.--Lucius Annaeus Seneca
"Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank, and of having nothing to do: once or twice she had peeped into the book her sister was reading, but it had no pictures or conversations in it, “and what is the use of a book,” thought Alice, “without pictures or conversations?”--Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventure in Wonderland, New York , Crowell

This note has a rather long, challenging and perhaps volatile history; and here is the story: When I started as a young professor teaching various courses in Graphic Design in the early 1970s, in Iran, I could not find a satisfying reference material for my students. Hence, I created a set of lecture notes that many of my students found quite useful. When I moved to Europe and later to North America, copies of those notes accompanied me at the bottom of a box that contained the paraphernalia of a gradually fading memories. Many years later when I was working at my studio gallery at the Granville Island in Vancouver, a couple of young professionals came in to my gallery and introduced themselves as my former students. It did'nt take  a long while for me to recognize them and then, despite their receding hair-lines and mature demeanor, I saw, in my mind's eyes, their younger faces of the yester-years gradually come to focus.

To make a long story short, they wrote an article about that surprise encounter in one of the newspapers of Toronto, and later on they asked my permission to publish my old lecture notes in Wikipedia. However, my notes were more than thirty years old, and in the past three decades Graphic Design has seen many progresses and drastic changes, both technically and conceptually, and therefore I decided to revise the notes thoroughly and completely. The revised notes were submitted to the Persian Wikipedia, but the publication was confronted by many hurdles arising mainly from Wikipedia's various administrative rules and regulations. Regulations such as: the published article should not be an original research! It should not contain a Point of View (i.e., it should not represent the value judgement of its writer) and so on and so forth. Nevertheless, the text was published, albeit subject to a drastically re-edited version that cleansed it of any of my personal artistic judgements. Unfortunately, the article was also drastically curtailed and the works of many graphic designers were eliminated because of copyright concerns. Of course, as a not-for-profit educational material these notes are subject to Fair Use Doctrine (FUD), in the United States' copyright law, which allows certain use of copyrighted material without requiring permissions from the rights' holders for uses such as commentary, criticism, news reporting, research, teaching or scholarship.

The Iranian Wikipedia's restrictions motivated me to translate my materials into English and publish them in the English Wikipedia. Here the copyright rules were somewhat less intransigent, particularly for educational materials. They adhered, somewhat, to the FUD, for instance they let an author to incorporate copy-righted images into their articles that are more than thirty years old, since apparently after this period many images will enter into the public domain. For some other copyrighted materials, such as Mondrian paintings, one may resort to the argument that their publications for non-profit educational purposes are legitimate since they are unique and cannot be represented by other materials for teaching. These criteria are usually posted in the licenses that are attached to each image. Unfortunately, caught up in the torrent of the everyday flood of the gibberish and hacked materials, Wikipedia's editors and managers, who are mostly enthusiastic young college students, with no time to distinguish between a genuine piece of informational material from the otherwise; or being simply incapable of forming such a judgement, arbitrarily  allow or disallow certain images. As well, they are heedlessly following a maze of cumbersome procedural WP policies that have exploded in the past few years into voluminous files and are often contradictory, inconsistent and irrational. As a result, although under the auspices of one my students, an earlier version of lecture notes were published in the English Wikipedia, many sections were senselessly mutilated and degenerated into sorry states. At the same time some of the over-zealot editors eliminated some of the images based on the argument that my notes are image-heavy! Of course, this was a direct assault on my philosophy that a history of graphic design should ideally be self-explanatory by its judicious use of images. I want the textual explanation to be at minimum and provide only some factual information about their chronological aspects together with some circumstantial information that would help to place a particular design in its proper historical trajectory. I want my readers constantly connect the dots and form their independent judgments about various issues.

Thus, I started allover again, and in the process I wrote emails to many artists and got their permissions to publish their works. Virtually all of the artists contacted were very supportive, and many times helped me to improve certain parts of these notes. Still there were many other challenges, for example sometimes after many months of research the whole draft of a chapter was inadvertently deleted, and unfortunately it could not be recovered. In the early days Google's Blogger did not have an option to ask the writer if she wants to delete a chapter. Fortunately, they solved this problem after chapter 25, or so.

Hence, there you have it. I published this long history in various segments, and I treated it as a living document when I find new materials I add them in their appropriate places. Many professors of graphic designs and designers have written to me with encouraging messages, and at the start of every school year the number of visits surges to a new height. 

gN 2/9/10 -- revised 23/3/14 

Here is a short sample list of lecture notes, graduate theses, scholarly articles and so on  throughout various countries that have referenced this history. This I consider my greatest reward.

Chetcuti Gabriel, (2014) Individual Work Essay – Alphonse Mucha and Milton Glaser, https://gabrielchetcuti.wordpress.com/author/gabrielchetcuti
Cole Richard Alan,  (2019), Fiction and the Historical Frame, A dissertation submitted to the University of Bristol in accordance with the requirements for award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Arts, School of Humanities, Department of Classics and Ancient History June 2019, https://research-information.bris.ac.uk/ws/portalfiles/portal/200317543/Fiction_and_the_Historical_Frame.pdf
[The] Danish Film Institute’s collection of Cuban Film Posters, (2013), Aphelis,  http://aphelis.net/danish-film-institutes-collection-cuban-film-posters
Elrayis Hanna, The Anti-Art Crusade Circa 1916, Ryerson University https://www.ryerson.ca/content/dam/gcm/images/Community/GCM110/magazines/Elrayis-Hanna.pdf

Falkowski K, (2015) The Falkowski Nation,   World History Honors, http://thefalkowskination.weebly.com/world-honors.html
Gerner Stephen, DES106 - Communication Design http://scm.ulster.ac.uk/~B00637409/des106/des106_diary.html
Grey Elinor, (2014), Lecture 5: Protest; Revolt, Record, Rebuild  WSA Research and Communication Skills, http://blog.soton.ac.uk/rcs/author/esg1g14/
Ibrahim Riem, (2013), Behaving Typography; Letterforms in Action,   International Master of Fine Arts UIC/HGK University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland Academy of Art and Design HGK FHNW Visual Communication Institute The Basel School of Design. file:///C:/Users/Farid/Downloads/MFA2013%20(2).pdf
Indonesia University of Education, Daftar Pustaka,  http://repository.upi.edu/11125/9/S_PSR_060400_Bibliography.pdf
Kiseljak Darija, (2012), Vizualni Identitet Hrvatskog Svemirskog Programa, Sveučilište U Zagrebu Grafički Fakultet, Zagreb http://eprints.grf.unizg.hr/1381/1/DB184_Kiseljak_Darija.pdf
Kotamanidou  N. (2013)  Σημειώσεις στο μάθημα Ελεύθερο Σχέδιο 2, Εαρινό Εξάμηνο 2013, ΤΕΙ Σερρών Τμήμα ΕΑΔΣΑ, Ν. Κοταμανίδου, http://eadsa.teicm.gr/E_Iliko/Ekpaideftiko_Iliko/____SX__2.pdf
Kopacz-Thomaidis Dorota. (2019), The Polish School of Poster, The E. Geppert Academy of Art and Design in Wrocław, https://www.atutoficyna.pl/uploads/images/41/The_Polish_School_of_Poster.pdf

Lyche Josefine, (2010), How deep the darkness, http://www.m759.net/wordpress/?s=kraussNickolas Lascot, Graphic Design History; Art Nouveau, Italian Futurism, Propaganda, Swiss Design, Pop Art  http://www.nicklascot.com/uploads/8/2/3/5/8235913/poster_design_research_guide.pdf
Macharla Kaushik, (2018), Modern-day issues related to Graphic Design and their solutions in a Historical perspective Modern Day Graphic Design Issues,  https://www.academia.edu/37919846/Modernday_issues_related_to_Graphic_Design_and_their_solutions_in_a_Historical_perspective,  
Morgan Ashley, (2018),  Reading to Seeing, Köln International School of Design https://issuu.com/ashleymorgan/docs/deconstruction_

Morris Katie, (2020) Graphic Design + Ceramics, Adventures of an Art Teacher https://www.katiemorrisart.com/2020/03/graphic-design-ceramics_18.html

PBS, newshour, (2013), Brooklyn Community Arts& Media  (BCAM) Lesson Plans http://newshour-tc.pbs.org/newshour/extra/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2013/11/BCAM-Lesson-Plans.pdf
Sammut Antoine, (2014), Josef Muller-Brockman, http://antoinesammut.blogspot.ca/2014/01/josef-muller-brockman.html
Shaheen  Shiza, (2013),  Is There An Understanding of Minimalism in Pakistani Advertisement in Reference to Print Media, Indus Valley School of Art and Architecture, http://www.indusvalley.edu.pk/library/2013/Communication%20Design/Shiza%20Shaheen/Shiza%20Shaheen%20Dissertation.pdf
Smith, Margit J (2014) « The dust-jacket considered  », CeROArt [En ligne], 9 | 2014, mis en ligne le 12 janvier 2014, consulté le 12 septembre 2015. URL : http://ceroart.revues.org/3786
SOUTH TEXAS COLLEGE, (2015) Fine and Performing Arts, Division of Liberal Arts and Social Science, Art Department, Course Syllabus, Fall Semester 2015, http://www.tasart.org/TASAmaster_syllabi/ARTS2348%20Master%20Syllabus.pdf
Spremberg Alexander, (2017),  Critical Anachronism: The recovery of the everyday in the context of Non-objective painting, A thesis  presented for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy of Curtin University,  https://espace.curtin.edu.au/bitstream/handle/20.500.11937/65945/Spremberg%20A%202017%20part.pdf

Sunandha Suan, Rajbhat University, (2014), http://www.teacher.ssru.ac.th/reudee_ni/file.php/1/Ceramic_Design_4/3-biblio.pdf







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